It is important to know what your leadership style is so you know what areas you need development in. However, these tests should be taken with a pinch of salt, as every individual is different and, for example, introverted people make excellent leaders as well as extroverted people. Also many of the theories below associate good leadership with specific traits but leadership is not an innate or static process, your traits and your leadership style will change over time.
Authentic leaders have been found to do/be the following (Northouse, 2010):
- Understand their values and their behaviour reflects their values
- Exhibit passion about their goals
- Connect with other people and build strong relationships
- Have enough self-discipline to persevere and be consistent
- Be compassionate
The below questionnaires can help you to reflect on yourself and assess what areas need development to become an authentic leader. You can also reflect, without the questionnaires, on what your values, both as a person and as a leader, are. For example, three values that are of importance to me are: creativity, determination and learning.
- What is important for you? What are your most cherished memories? What about them makes them important? What values can you associate with those moments?
- What frustrates you? What makes you upset? Remember situations in which you failed? How did they make you feel? What negative values can you think of in relation to those moments?
- What are the moments when you took a leap of faith or when you trusted your intuition? What triggered you to have the courage to listen to your instinct? Can you connect this to any values?
The OCEAN model (Open-mindedness-Conscientiousness-Extraversion-Agreeableness-Neuroticism) assesses the “Big 5” personality traits most associated with leadership. An example of this test can be found here- https://www.psychometrictest.org.uk/big-five-personality/
This test assess the following personality dimensions:
- Openness to Experience - broad-minded, curious, creative, untraditional, imaginative
- Conscientiousness - persevering, self-disciplined, reliable, punctual, efficient
- Extraversion - active, person-oriented, fun loving, affectionate, sociable, optimistic
- Agreeableness - trusting, helpful, kind hearted, good-natured, straightforward
- Neuroticism - tense, emotional, insecure, nervous, worrying
- Openness 97.5%
- Conscientiousness 95%
- Extraversion 62.5%
- Agreeableness 92.5%
- Neuroticism 45%
The TREO (Team Role Experience and Orientation) is a test that identifies what your usual role in a team, identifying your strengths and weaknesses. It can be found in the appendix of Mathieu et al. (2015)’s work. The test identifies the following roles that are necessary in a team:
- Organiser- structures what team is doing, keeps track of accomplishments, keeps track of progression, goals and timelines
- Doer- willingly takes on work, completes work, meets deadlines
- Challenger- pushes team to explore all aspects of a situation, often asks “why”, comfortable debating and critiquing
- Innovator- generates new and creative ideas, strategies, and approaches for how the team can handle various situations and challenges
- Team Builder- helps establish norms, supports decisions, and maintains a positive work atmosphere within the team
- Connector- helps bridge and connect the team with others, ensuring a good working relationship
- Organiser 38%
- Doer 88%
- Challenger 13%
- Innovator 38%
- Team Builder 25%
- Connector 75%
Belbin has created a theory around team roles, that associates team roles with individual “orientation”. A free version of this test can be found at https://testyourself.psychtests.com/testid/3113. Individuals can be action/task-oriented, people/relationships oriented and thought-oriented. The orientations have the following characteristics:
- Action Oriented Roles- Shaper (Challenges the team to improve), Implementer (Puts ideas into action), Completer (Finisher, Ensures thorough, timely completion)
- People Oriented Roles- Coordinator (Acts as a chairperson), Team Worker (Encourages cooperation), Resource Investigator (Explores outside opportunities)
- Thought Oriented Roles- Plant (Presents new ideas and approaches), Monitor-Evaluator (Analyses the options), Specialist (Provides specialized skills)
- Strengths- able to work with your team to resolve problems, good at setting team goals
- Potential Strengths- satisfactory interpersonal skills, sometimes able to resolve conflict with teammates, able to communicate with others during teamwork with relative ease, able to manage some of the different tasks, goals and other aspects of teamwork
- Limitations- are not very skilled at planning and coordinating with teammates, seem to prefer individual work over teamwork
John, O. P., & Srivastava, S. (1999). The Big-Five trait taxonomy: History, measurement, and theoretical perspectives. In L. A. Pervin & O. P. John (Eds.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research (Vol. 2, pp. 102–138). New York: Guilford Press
Northouse, P.G.,2010. Leadership: Theory and Practice (5th Ed). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc. (No accessible link, this book can be found both at the Diamond and the IC for Sheffield Students).
Mathieu, Tannenbaum, Kukenberger, Donsbach, & Alliger (2015), Team Role Experience and Orientation: A Measure and Tests of Construct Validity, Group & Organization Management Volume 40 (1), pp 6-34, Available at https://www.researchgate.net/publication/276242129_Team_Role_Experience_and_Orientation_A_Measure_and_Tests_of_Construct_Validity (Accessed: 15/03/18).